mandag, mars 22, 2010

INF211 - kommunikativ handling

23 mars 09.15. Pensum: Erik Oddvar Eriksen og Jarle Weigård: Kommunikativ handling og deliberativt demokrati, kap 3, 4 og 9.

3: Det kommunikative handlingsbegrepet.

Bevissthetsfilosofisk perspektiv: René Descartes, Cogito, ergo sum. Indre iakttagelse eller introspeksjon er utgangspunkt for kunnskap.

Kommunikativt perspektiv: rasjonalitet fundert ikke på subjektets bevissthet, men på handlingene mellom subjekter - intersubjektivitet. Fra Objektivitet til normativitet og ekspressivitet. Jürgen Habermas og teorien om kommunikativ handling.

Habermas' teorier bygger på:
Wittgenstein: den analytiske språkfilosofien og språkspill.

It is here that Wittgenstein's rejection of general explanations, and definitions based on sufficient and necessary conditions, is best pronounced. Instead of these symptoms of the philosopher's "craving for generality", he points to ‘family resemblance’ as the more suitable analogy for the means of connecting particular uses of the same word. There is no reason to look, as we have done traditionally — and dogmatically — for one, essential core in which the meaning of a word is located and which is, therefore, common to all uses of that word. We should, instead, travel with the word's uses through "a complicated network of similarities, overlapping and criss-crossing" (PI 66).

John L. Austin og John R. Searle: talehandlingsteorien.

locutionary, illocutionary og perlocutionary

Handlinger som kan gjøres med ord (fra wikipedia):
Greeting (in saying, "Hi John!", for instance), apologizing ("Sorry for that!"), describing something ("It is snowing"), asking a question ("Is it snowing?"), making a request and giving an order ("Could you pass the salt?" and "Drop your weapon or I'll shoot you!"), or making a promise ("I promise I'll give it back") are typical examples of "speech acts" or "illocutionary acts".

  • In saying, "Watch out, the ground is slippery", Mary performs the speech act of warning Peter to be careful.

  • In saying, "I will try my best to be at home for dinner", Peter performs the speech act of promising to be at home in time.

  • In saying, "Ladies and gentlemen, please give me your attention", Mary requests the audience to be quiet.

  • In saying, "Race with me to that building over there!", Peter challenges Mary.

Den fenomenologiske tradisjonen: Teorien om en sosialt delt livsverden som grunnlag for menneskelig erkjennelse.
Edmund Husserl og Alfred Schütz.

Husserl: empati
Among the fundamental beliefs thus uncovered by Husserl is the belief (or expectation) that a being that looks and behaves more or less like myself, i.e., displays traits more or less familiar from my own case, will generally perceive things from an egocentric viewpoint similar to my own (“here”, “over there”, “to my left”, “in front of me”, etc.), in the sense that I would roughly look upon things the way he does if I were in his shoes and perceived them from his perspective. This belief allows me to ascribe intentional acts to others immediately or “appresentatively”, i.e., without having to draw an inference, say, by analogy with my own case. So the belief in question must lie quite at the bedrock of my belief-system. It forms a part of the already pregiven (and generally unreflected) intentional background, or “lifeworld” (cf. Crisis), against which my practice of act-ascription and all constitutive achievements based upon that practice make sense in the first place, and in terms of which they get their ultimate justification.

Schütz: den sosiale verdens fenomenologi
Schutz, though, turned the Husserlian account of temporality in the direction of an action theory, demarcating levels of passive experience (e.g. bodily reflexes), spontaneous activity without a guiding project (e.g., acts of noticing environmental stimuli), and deliberately planned and projected activity, known technically as “action” (e.g., writing a book). In planning an action to be realized in the future, one relies on reflective acts of “projection”, like those found in reflective memory, only now oriented in a future as opposed to past direction. Through such reflectivity, one imagines a project as completed in future perfect tense, that is, what will have been realized after one's acting, and this project, also of central importance for Martin Heidegger and the pragmatist tradition, establishes the “in-order-to motive” of one's action. By contrast, one's “because motives” consist in the environmental, historical factors that influenced the (now past) decision to embark upon the project and that can only be discovered by investigating in the “pluperfect tense,” that is, exploring those past factors that preceded that past decision.

Fenomenologi: Studiet av ting slik de ser ut for oss (Das Ding for uns vs Das Ding an sich - Kant.)

Pragmatisme: Charles Sanders Peirce
Det pragmatiske maksimet - fra wikipedia
It appears, then, that the rule for attaining the third grade of clearness of apprehension is as follows: Consider what effects, which might conceivably have practical bearings, we conceive the object of our conception to have. Then, our conception of these effects is the whole of our conception of the object.

Den symbolske interaksjonismen: George Herbert Mead
Language, in Mead's view, is communication through significant symbols. A significant symbol is a gesture (usually a vocal gesture) that calls out in the individual making the gesture the same (i.e., functionally identical) response that is called out in others to whom the gesture is directed (Mind, Self and Society 47).


eks fra aftenposten, Magnhild Meltveit Kleppa:
Dagens finansiering er ryddig. Det er en kombinasjon av bompenger og offentlige midler. Så vil vi hele tiden, ved hvert prosjekt, måtte vurdere hvor mange det er plass til. Og det skaper en begrensning, sier Kleppa.

  • Det er sant det jeg sier - Dagens finansiering er ryddig.

  • Det er legitimt for meg å si dette - Jeg er en erfaren politiker som har satt meg inn i saken og vet hvordan dagens finansiering fungerer.

  • Jeg mener det jeg sier - Vi må vurdere fra sak til sak hvordan finansiering skal være og vi kommer til å gjøre det.

Dette kan trekkes i tvil, og er selv et utsagn om tvil:
Selv om Kleppa påpeker at hun ønsker innspill, og ikke har bestemt seg, står utspillet hennes i kontrast til budskapet fra hennes forgjenger som samferdselsminister, partikollega Liv Signe Navarsete. Det var Navarsete som la frem den transportplanen som gjelder nå, og i den konkluderte Regjeringen med at den ikke vil foreslå flere OPS-prosjekter.

4: Diskursetikk

Normative spørsmål: skillet mellom er og bør.

Utviklingen i den moralske bevissthet.
Lawrence Kohlberg: stadier i moralsk utvikling. *

Bygger på John Rawls teori.

ontogenetisk perspektiv: utviklingen fra barndom mot voksen alder
fylogenetisk perspektiv: Menneskehetens sosiale evolusjon gjennom artens historie.

Emile Durkheim: Australsk totemisme.

Immanuel Kant: den praktiske fornuft er deontologisk, kognitivistisk, formalistisk og universalistisk.

Det kategoriske imperativ: Du skal alltid handle slik at dine handlinger kan være en universell lov.

  • The circular argument, in which theory and proof support each other

  • The regressive argument, in which each proof requires a further proof

  • The axiomatic argument, which rests on accepted precepts

9: Offentlig meningsdannelse og rasjonell politikk
institusjonaliseringen av offentligheten

Thomas Hobbes
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
John Stuart Mill: En vet ikke om en har rett før en har hørt motargumentene. En kommunikativ frihet impliserer en moralsk plikt til å begrunne sine standpunkter.

Reføydaliseringen - se også The fall of public man, Richard Sennet.