Dataspill: Opplevelser og potensiale
Animasjon, 14 november 2003
Hypertekst: modeller for en personlig publikumsopplevelse
Dataspill: Potensielle begivenheter
Tetris: rammer og valgfrihet
Chip’s Challenge: Nivåer, variasjon, gåter
Baldur’s Gate: Historier, roller, utfordringer
Enbrukerspill/Flerbrukerspill – sosiale aktiviteter på ulike nivå
Vold, påvirkning og teori
Hva er spill
Definisjoner av spill – Huizinga
The game is optional, as Huizinga points out: “Here, then, we have the first main characteristic of play: that it is free, is in fact freedom. A second characteristic is closely connected with this, that play is not ‘ordinary’ or ‘real’ life” (1950:8).
“Play is distinct from ‘ordinary’ life both as to locality and duration. This is the third main characteristic of play: its secludedness, it limitedness. It is ‘played out’ within certain limits of time and place. It contains its own course and meaning” (1950:9).
“The exceptional and special position of play is most tellingly illustrated by the fact that it loves to surround itself with an air of secrecy. Even in early childhood play is enhanced by making a “secret” out of it.”
“Any game can at any time wholly run away with the players” (1950:8).
More striking even than the limitation as to time is the limitation as to space. All play moves and has its being within a playground marked off beforehand either materially or ideally, deliberately or as a matter of course. Just as there is no formal difference between play and ritual, so the ‘consecrated spot’ cannot be formally distinguished from the playground. The arena, the card-table, the temple, the stage, the screen, the tennis court, the court of justice, etc., are all in form and function play-grounds, i.e. forbidden spots, isolated, hedged round, hallowed, within which special rules obtain. All are temporary worlds within the ordinary world, dedicated to the performance of an act apart. (Huizinga 1950:10)
Typer spill - Caillois:
Mimircry. All play presupposes the temporary acceptance, if not of an illusion (indeed this last word means nothing less than beginning a game: in-lusio), then at least of a closed, conventional, and in certain respects, imaginary universe. Play can consist not only of deploying actions or submitting to one’s fate in an imaginary milieu, but of becoming an illusory character oneself, and of so behaving. One is thus confronted with a diverse series of manifestations, the common element of which is that the subject makes believe or makes others believe that he is someone other than himself. (1979:19)
Alea. This is the Latin name for game of dice. I have borrowed it tto designate, in contrast to agôn, all games that are based on a decision independent of the player, an outcome over which he has no control, and in which winning is the result of fate rather than triumphing over an adversary. More properly, destiny is the sole artisan of victory, and where there is rivalry, what is meant is that the winner has been more favoured by fortune than the loser. (Caillois 1979:17)
Agôn. A whole group of games would seem to be competitive, that is to say, like a combat in which equality of chances is artificially created, in order that the adversaries should confront each other under ideal conditions, susecptible of giving precise and incontestable value to the winner’s triumph. It is therefor always a question of rivalry which hinges on a single quality (speed, endurance, strength, memory, skill, ingenuity, etc.), exercised, within defined limits and without outside assistance, in such a way that the winner appears to be better than the loser in a certain category of exploits. (Caillois 1979:14)
Ilinx. The last kind of game includes those which are based on the pursuit of vertigo and which consists of an attempt to momentarily destroy the stability of perception and inflict a kind of voluptous panic upon an otherwise lucid mind. In cases, it is a question of surrendering to kind of spasm, seizure, or shock which destroys reality with sovereign brusqueness. (Caillois 1979:32)
Utbytte av spill – Sutton-Smith
Spill, fortellinger og fiksjon
Spillets estetikk: Hva er et godt spill?